1428 (22nd November)
Richard Neville, Warwick Kingmaker, was born to Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montacute.
At the age of 6 years, Richard was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp daughter of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick and his wife Isabel Despenser.
1439 (30th April)
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick died.
Richard Neville and Anne Beauchamp were married. The exact year of the marriage is not known. The year 1444 is suggested because Richard would have been 16 years old and Anne 18 years old, good ages to marry at the time.
1445 (22nd April)
Margaret of Anjou, wife of King Henry VI was crowned Queen. As part of the celebrations, Richard Neville was knighted.
1446 (11th June)
Henry Beauchamp, brother of Richard Neville’s wife, Anne Beauchamp, died. The earldom of Warwick passed to his young daughter, Anne who became Countess of Warwick.
1449 (3rd June)
Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick died. The Earldom of Warwick passed to Richard Neville in right of his wife.
1451 (5th September)
A daughter, Isabel, was born to Warwick and Anne Beauchamp.
Warwick fell out with Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, after the King granted Somerset control of Glamorgan which had been held by Warwick as part of his Despenser heritage.
King Henry VI suffered a mental breakdown and was considered unfit to rule. The Duke of Somerset, a favourite of King Henry and Margaret of Anjou took control of government.
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was annoyed that his enemy, Somerset, had control of the country. He turned his favour to Richard Duke of York.
1453 (13th October)
A son, Edward, was born to King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou at the Palace of Westminster. He was created Duke of Cornwall.
1454 (15th March)
Prince Edward, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester.
1454 (27th March)
A group of royal councillors, unhappy with the way the Duke of Somerset was handling government, nominated Richard Duke of York as Protector in his stead.
Henry VI regained his mental capacity. He put Somerset back in control of government.
Warwick, his father, the Earl of Salisbury and Richard Duke of York began raising troops against King Henry and Somerset.
1455 (22nd May)
Wars of the Roses
First Battle of St Albans
This battle saw the forces of Warwick, Salisbury and Richard Duke of York defeat the Lancastrians led by Somerset and Northumberland. Somerset was killed in the battle and Henry was captured. The battle marked the beginning of the conflict between the Lancastrians and Yorkists called the Wars of the Roses.
1455 (3rd May)
With the King under his control, Richard Duke of York became Protector of the realm again.
Warwick was appointed Captain of Calais as a reward for his support of Richard of York.
Richard Duke of York was dismissed as regent when Henry VI resumed personal rule supported by Queen Margaret.
1456 (11th June)
A second daughter, Anne, was born to Warwick and his wife, Anne Beauchamp.
1457 (28th May)
Warwick intercepted and attacked a Spanish fleet off the Calais coast.
1457 (28th August)
French raiders lay waste to Sandwich, Kent.
Warwick captured a German fleet on its way to Lubeck.
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was recalled to Westminster to explain why he had attacked the Spanish and German ships when England was not at war with either country.
A brawl broke out between Warwick’s men and members of the Royal household. Warwick, feared the repercussions and fled to Calais.
1459 (23rd September)
Battle of Blore Heath
Richard Duke of York supported by Salisbury fought off a Lancastrian attack that was supported by the Percy family.
1459 (late September)
Warwick crossed the Channel to England to meet with the Earl of Salisbury and the Duke of York.
1459 (12th – 13th October)
Rout of Ludlow
Richard of York, Warwick and the Nevilles mustered their supporters at Ludlow but when the main Lancastrian army appeared their men deserted. York fled to Ireland and Warwick and Salisbury fled back to Calais. They took the Duke of York’s son, Edward, with them.
1459 (late October)
On arrival at Calais Warwick was forced to defend his position as Captain of Calais from being taken by Henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset.
Warwick continued to hold Calais against Somerset. He also sent a fleet to Sandwich and captured the town and Lord Rivers.
Warwick went to Ireland to meet with Richard of York.
1460 (26th June)
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, his father and Edward, Earl of March landed at Sandwich at the head of an army and marched towards London.
1460 (2nd July)
Warwick’s father, Earl of Salisbury was left in charge of a force that lay siege to the Tower of London. Warwick and the Earl of March rode north.
1460 (10th July)
Battle of Northampton
Warwick and Edward, Earl of March defeated a Lancastrian force led by Humphrey, Stafford and Buckingham. They captured Henry VI. Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward fled to Harlech Castle.
1460 (14th July)
Warwick and Edward Earl of March returned to London with Henry VI in captivity.
1460 (19th July)
Warwick and Edward Earl of March used their forces to defeat the Lancastrians in the Tower of London.
Richard of York claimed the English throne but the landowners refused to accept him as anything other than heir to the throne.
1460 (25th October)
Act of Accord
Richard Duke of York was named successor to the throne over Henry VI’s son, Edward.
1460 (30th December)
Battle of Wakefield
Queen Margaret, unwilling to accept the disinheritance of her son Edward, raised an army in the north. Richard of York was forced to march north where he was defeated and killed by the Lancastrian army.
1460 (31st December)
Warwick’s father, Richard Neville, Duke of Salisbury, who had been captured by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield, was executed. Warwick inherited his father’s title, lands and possessions.
1460 (31st December)
King Henry VI was released from captivity but was still mentally unstable and as a consequence was unfit to rule.
Warwick, who earned the nickname Kingmaker due to his meddling in matters of the succession, put forward Richard of York’s son, Edward, Earl of March as claimant to the throne.
1461 (2nd February)
Battle of Mortimer’s Cross
A Yorkist army led by Edward, Duke of York, defeated a Lancastrian force led by the Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire on route to join Margaret of Anjou’s advance on London.
1461 (17th February)
Second Battle of St Albans
Warwick attempted to block Margaret of Anjou’s southward advance on London but his defensive position was surprised. After a long and bloody battle the Yorkists were defeated and Warwick fled. Henry VI was back in Lancastrian hands.
1461 (late February)
Warwick and Edward of York joined forces and marched towards London.
1461 (4th March)
King Henry VI was deposed by Edward Duke of York who took the throne as Edward IV with Warwick as his chief advisor.
1461 (29th March)
Battle of Towton
Edward Earl of March pursued the Lancastrians north and attacked them near Tadcaster. After a long fight in heavy snowfall, the Lancastrians were defeated having suffered heavy casualties.
Following the Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Towton, Margaret and Prince Edward fled to Scotland where they were given refuge. King Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1461 (28th June)
Edward IV was crowned King at Westminster Abbey.
1461 (after June)
Warwick was the real power behind the crown and made most decisions and shaped policy.
Warwick was created High Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster.
Warwick successfully negotiated a truce with Scotland.
Margaret of Anjou invaded with French troops and, with the support of northern nobles including Ralph Percy, took the castles of Alnwick and Bamburgh.
1462 (9th December)
Warwick’s mother, Alice Montacute, Countess of Salisbury, died. Warwick inherited his mother’s lands and possessions. Warwick was now the richest nobleman in the kingdom with his wealth only surpassed by that of the King.
Warwick recaptured Alnwick and Bamburgh castles. The leaders of the rebellion were pardoned and Warwick returned to London.
1463 (late March)
Ralph Percy and the northern nobles rose in support of the deposed Henry VI and took the county of Northumberland and the town of Norham. Warwick returned to the north and took Norham but was unable to take Northumberland. Unable to put the rebellions down, Warwick negotiated a truce with France which would be sealed with the marriage of Edward IV to the French King’s sister. Without French support the Lancastrians were unable to maintain there hold on the north. The leaders of the rebellion were executed.
1464 (1st May)
King Edward secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, Baron Rivers.
Edward announced his marriage. Warwick was angry with Edward because he had promised the French that Edward would seal their alliance with a royal marriage between the two countries.
1465 (24th July)
Henry VI was captured by Yorkist forces and taken to the Tower of London.
Warwick was sent to negotiate with both the French and the Burgundians. Any truce would be sealed with the marriage of Edward’s sister Margaret. Warwick believed that a truce with France would be best for the country.
King Edward IV made the Queen’s father, Baron Rivers, treasurer of England. Rivers pressed for an alliance with the Burgundians bringing him into conflict with Warwick who favoured a French alliance.
Warwick learned that Edward had gone behind his back and signed a treaty with the Burgundians. Warwick was frustrated and annoyed that Edward favoured his wife’s relatives rather than his trusted advisers.
1467 (late October)
Warwick was accused of plotting to return Henry VI to the throne. Warwick refused to attend court to answer the charge but instead sent a letter of denial which the King accepted.
Richard Neville Earl of Warwick was very frustrated by his lack of power over Edward. He turned his attention to Edward’s younger brother, George, Duke of Clarence who he possibly intended to make King in Edward’s stead.
Warwick secretly organised a rebellion against Edward in the North. The rebellion was quickly put down by the Yorkists.
1469 (26th July)
Battle of Edgecote Moor
Warwick raised an army of northern rebels led by Sir John Conyers, Edward’s cousin. They defeated a force of Welsh loyalists led by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.
1469 (late July)
Warwick captured Edward IV, and executed Baron Rivers and his son. With Edward in captivity he married his daughter Isabel, to George Duke of Clarence. Warwick then attempted to rule in Edward’s name but he was not supported by the nobility.
Warwick moved Edward IV to Middleham Castle where he remained under house arrest.
1469 (10th September)
Failing to gain the support of the nobility and with the country descending into disorder Warwick was forced to release Edward.
Edward and Warwick tried to work together but when Edward went against Warwick’s advice and restored Henry Percy to Northumberland their relationship broke down.
1470 (12th March)
Battle of Losecoat Field
Warwick and George Duke of Clarence, with Lancastrian support, rebelled against King Edward IV but were defeated. They fled to France.
1470 (1st May)
Warwick made an alliance with Margaret of Anjou.
1470 (13th September)
Warwick and George Duke of Clarence at the head of an army returned to England and landed at Plymouth.
1470 (2nd October)
In the face of mounting opposition from Warwick, King Edward fled to Burgundy. Elizabeth Woodville and her children sought sanctuary in Westminster Abbey.
1470 (3rd October)
King Henry VI was restored to the English throne with Warwick as chief minister.
1470 (13th December)
Warwick’s daughter, Anne, married Henry VI’s son and heir, Edward at Angers Cathedral.
Edward IV’s titles and lands were confiscated by Parliament.
1471 (14th March)
Edward returned to England, landing at Ravenspur in Yorkshire at the head of a Burgundian Yorkist army. He was joined by the Earl of Northumberland and his brother George Duke of Clarence who defected from Warwick.
1471 (14th April)
Battle of Barnet
The Lancastrians led by Warwick met Edward’s Yorkist force at Barnet. After a three hour fight in thick fog, two Lancastrian divisions mistakenly attacked each other and the army broke and fled. Warwick fled but was knocked off his horse and killed.
First published 2017, updated and re-published Apr 14 2021 @ 10:44 am – Updated – Nov 15, 2022 @ 7:50 PM
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2017 – 2021). Richard Neville, Warwick, Kingmaker 1428 – 1471 Timeline.