Family tree of Richard Neville aka Warwick the Kingmaker (2022)

geni:about_me Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick1

M, #101631, b. 22 November 1428, d. 14 April 1471

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick was born on 22 November 1428.

He was the son of Richard de Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury.

He married Lady Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and Isabel le Despenser, in 1434.

He died on 14 April 1471 at age 42, killed in action, without male issue.2 He was buried at Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, England.

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick also went by the nick-name of 'The Kingmaker'. He was invested as a Knight before 6 August 1445.1 He held the office of Joint Warden of Carlisle and the West Marches towards Scotland in 1446.1 He succeeded to the title of 16th Earl of Warwick on 23 July 1449.1 He held the office of Hereditary Chamberlain of the Exchequer in 1450, in right of his wife.1 He held the office of Hereditary Sheriff of Worcestershire between 1450 and 1470.1 He was created 1st Earl of Warwick [England] on 2 March 1449/50.1 He held the office of Joint Warden of Carlisle and the West Marches towards Scotland in 1453.1 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) before 6 December 1453.1 He held the office of Captain of Calais in 1455.1 He fought in the First Battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455, commander of the Yorks.1 He fought in the naval actions against the Spaniards and Hanseatic traders from 1458 to 1459, as naval commander.1 On 20 November 1459 he was attainted.1 He held the office of Governor of the Channel Islands in 1460.1 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1460.1 He fought in the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460, where he lead the Yorkists to victory.1 In October 1460 he was pardoned.1 He held the office of Constable of Dover Castle in 1461.1 He held the office of Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1461.1 Heheld the office of Lord Great Chamberlain [England] in January 1460/61.1 He fought in the Second Battle of St. Albans on 17 February 1460/61, where he lead the Yorkists to defeat.1 He fought in the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, where he commanded the central block of the Yorkist army.1 He held the office of Lord Great Chamberlain in May 1461, for life.1 He held the office of Warden of the East and West Marches towards Scotland in July 1461.1 He held the office of Lord High Steward [England] in December 1461.1 He held the office of Admiral of England in 1462.1 He succeeded to the title of 6th Earl of Salisbury in 1462.1 In 1469 he suppressed the Lancastrian rising in the North, under his relative Sir Humphrey Neville.1 In September 1470 he proclaimed Henry as king, after switching support from King Edward IV to Henry (VI).1 He held the office of Joint Lord of the Realm in November 1470.1 He held the office of Admiral of England, Ireland and Acquitaine in January 1470/71.2 He fought in the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471.

On his death, the Earldom of Salisbury reverted to the Crown.

Children of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and Lady Anne Beauchamp

1.Lady Isabel Neville+2 b. 5 Sep 1451, d. 22 Dec 1476

2.Lady Anne Beauchamp Neville+ b. 11 Jun 1456, d. 16 Mar 1485

3.Margaret Neville+3 b. b 1471

Richard Neville

16th Earl of Warwick

Nick-name 'The Kingmaker'.

Knight before 6 August 1445.

Joint Warden of Carlisle and the West Marches towards Scotland in 1446.

16th Earl of Warwick on 23 July 1449.

Hereditary Chamberlain of the Exchequer in 1450, in right of his wife.

Hereditary Sheriff of Worcestershire between 1450 and 1470.

1st Earl of Warwick [England] on 2 March 1449/50.

Joint Warden of Carlisle and the West Marches towards Scotland in 1453.

Privy Counsellor (P.C.) before 6 December 1453.1

Captain of Calais in 1455.

Fought in the First Battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455, commander of the Yorks.

Fought in the naval actions against the Spaniards and Hanseatic traders from 1458 to 1459, as naval commander.

On 20 November 1459 he was attainted.

Governor of the Channel Islands in 1460.

Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1460.

Fought in the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460, where he lead the Yorkists to victory.

In October 1460 he was pardoned.

Constable of Dover Castle in 1461.

Warden of the Cinque Ports in 1461.

Lord Great Chamberlain [England] in January 1460/61.

Fought in the Second Battle of St. Albans on 17 February 1460/61, where he lead the Yorkists to defeat.

Fought in the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, where he commanded the central block of the Yorkist army.

Lord Great Chamberlain in May 1461, for life.

Warden of the East and West Marches towards Scotland in July 1461.

Lord High Steward [England] in December 1461.

Admiral of England in 1462.

6th Earl of Salisbury in 1462.1

In 1469 he suppressed the Lancastrian rising in the North, under his relative Sir Humphrey Neville.

In September 1470 he proclaimed Henry as king, after switching support from King Edward IV to Henry (VI).

Lord of the Realm in November 1470.

Admiral of England, Ireland and Acquitaine in January 1470/71.

He fought in the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, where he was killed.

On his death, the Earldom of Salisbury reverted to the Crown

Links.

The peerage: http://thepeerage.com/p10164.htm

Geneall: http://www.geneall.net/U/per_page.php?id=1865

Wikipedia:

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Neville,_16th_Earl_of_Warwick

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Robert NEVILLE of Liversedge (Esq.)

Born: ABT 1411, Liversedge, Yorkshire, England

Died: 1438

Notes: "Pedigrees of Halifax Families" from Hopkinson's MSS, Vol. I. "Eleanor was d of Sir Robert Neville of Liversedge" "Ellen was dau. of Sir Robert Neville of Liversedge." "Testamenta Eboracensia. A selection of Will from the Registry at York" p.244. The Will of Alice Widow of Sir Thomas Neville of Liversedge, Knt. Footnote: Robert Neville her son married Ellen Molineux a Lancashire lacy. (Tonge, 83) On 27 Oct 1454, Archbishop Booth allowed Robert Neville, esq. and Ellen his wife to have an oratory for a year at Liversedge and Hunslet.

Father: Thomas NEVILLE of Liversedge (Sir Knight)

Mother: Alice GASCOIGNE

Married 1: Agnes SCARGILL (b. ABT 1409) (dau. of William Scargill and Dorothy Conyers)

Children:

1. Elizabeth NEVILLE

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Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury[1] (22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander. The son ofRichard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Warwick was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the main protagonists in the Wars of the Roses, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, a fact which later earned him his epithet of "Kingmaker".

Through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics. Originally a supporter of King Henry VI, a territorial dispute with the Duke of Somerset led him to collaborate with Richard, Duke of York, opposing the king. From this conflict he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position that benefited him greatly in the years to come. The political conflict later turned into full-scale rebellion, and both York and Warwick's father, Salisbury, fell in battle. York's son, however, later triumphed with Warwick's assistance, and was crowned King Edward IV. Edward initially ruled with Warwick's support, but the two later fell out over foreign policy and the king's choice of partner in marriage. After a failed plot to crown Edward's brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne. The triumph was short-lived however: on 14 April 1471 Warwick was defeated by Edward at the Battle of Barnet, and killed.

Warwick had no sons. The eldest of his two daughters, Isabel, married George, Duke of Clarence. His youngest daughter Anne – after a short-lived marriage to King Henry's son Edward – married King Edward's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who later became King Richard III.

Warwick's historical legacy has been a matter of much dispute. Historical opinion has alternated between seeing him as self-centred and rash, and regarding him as a victim of the whims of an ungrateful king. It is generally agreed, however, that in his own time he enjoyed great popularity in all layers of society, and that he was skilled at appealing to popular sentiments for political support.[2]

Contents [hide]

1 Becoming Warwick

2 Civil War

3 House of York triumphant

4 Warwick's apex

5 Early tensions

6 Rebellion and death

7 Aftermath

8 Historical assessment

9 Neville family tree

10 See also

11 Footnotes

12 References

13 Further reading

13.1 Chronicles

13.2 Secondary sources

14 External links

[edit] Becoming Warwick

The Nevilles were an ancient Durham family who came to prominence in the fourteenth-century wars against the Scots. In 1397 Ralph Neville had been created Earl of Westmorland.[3] Ralph's son Richard, the later Earl of Warwick's father, was a younger son by a second marriage, and therefore not heir to the earldom.[4] He received a favourable settlement, however, and became jure uxoris Earl of Salisbury through his marriage to Alice, daughter and heir of Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury.[5]

Salisbury's son Richard, the later Earl of Warwick, was born on 22 November 1428; little is known of his childhood.[6] At the age of six, Richard was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and his wife Isabel Despenser. This made him heir not only to the earldom of Salisbury, but also to a substantial part of the Montague, Beauchamp, and Despenser inheritance.[7]

Circumstances were, however, to increase his fortune even further. Beauchamp's son Henry, who was married to Richard's sister Cecille, died in 1446. When Henry's daughter Anne died in 1449, Richard also found himself jure uxoris Earl of Warwick.[8] Richard's succession to the estates did not go undisputed, however. A protracted battle over parts of the inheritance ensued, particularly with Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was married to a daughter from Richard Beauchamp's first marriage.[7] The dispute was about land, not about the Warwick title, as Henry's half-sisters were excluded from the succession.[9]

By 1445 Richard had been knighted, probably at Queen Margaret's coronation on 22 April that year.[10] He appears to have entered into the service of King Henry VI by 1449, when mention is made of his services in a grant.[11] He performed military service in the north with his father, and might have taken part in the war against Scotland in 1448–9.[12] When Richard, Duke of York unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of the king.[13]

[edit] Civil War

As Henry VI's incompetence and intermittent madness became clear, many of the responsibilities of government fell on his queen, Margaret of Anjou.In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until then – and open conflict broke out between the two men.[14] Then, in the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill.[15] Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, and with the king incapacitated he was virtually in complete control of government.[16] This put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, and drove him into collaboration with York.[17] The political climate, influenced by themilitary defeat in France, then started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm.[18] York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but also of Warwick's father Salisbury, who had become more deeply involved in disputes with the Percys in the north of England.[19]

York's first protectorate did not last long. Early in 1455 the king rallied sufficiently to return to power, at least nominally, with Somerset again wielding real power.[20] Warwick returned to his estates, as did York and Salisbury, and the three started raising troops.[21] Marching towards London, they encountered the king at St Albans, where the two forces clashed. The battle was brief and not particularly bloody, but it was the first instance of armed hostilities between the forces of the Houses of York and Lancaster in the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.[22] It was also significant because it resulted in the capture of the king, and the death of Somerset.[23]

York's second protectorate that followed was even shorter-lived than the first.[24] At the parliament of February 1456 the king – now under the influence of Queen Margaret – resumed personal government of the realm.[25] By this time Warwick had taken over Salisbury's role as York's main ally, even appearing at that same parliament to protect York from retributions.[26] This conflict was also a pivotal period in Warwick's career, as it was resolved by his appointment to the captaincy of Calais.[27] The post was to provide him with a vital power base in the following years of conflict. The Continental town of Calais, conquered from France in 1347, was not only of vital strategic importance, it also held what was England's largest standing army.[28] There were some initial disputes, with the garrison and with the royal wool monopoly known as the staple, over payments in arrears, but in July Warwick finally took up his post.[29]

After the recent events, Queen Margaret still considered Warwick a threat to the throne, and cut off his supplies.[7] In August 1457, however, a French attack on the English sea port of Sandwich set off fears of a full-scale French invasion. Warwick was again funded to protect the garrison and patrol the English coast.[30] In disregard of royal authority, he then conducted highly successful acts of piracy, against the Castilian fleet in May 1458, and against the Hanseatic fleet a few weeks later.[31] He also used his time on the Continent to establish contact with Charles VII of France and Philip the Good of Burgundy.[32] Developing a solid military reputation and with good international connections, he then brought a part of his garrison to England, where he met up with his father and York in the summer of 1459.[33]

[edit] House of York triumphant

Middleham Castle was Warwick's favourite residence in England. In the late 1450s, however, business in Calais kept him away from Middleham for longer periods.In September 1459 Warwick crossed over to England and made his way northto Ludlow to meet up with Salisbury, fresh from his victory over Lancastrians at the battle of Blore Heath, and York.[34] At nearby Ludford Bridge their forces were scattered by the king's army, partly because of the defection ofWarwick's Calais contingent under the command of Andrew Trollope.[35] As it turned out, the majority of the soldiers were still reluctant to raise arms against the king. [35] Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the duke's son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).[36] Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset was appointed to replace Warwick as Captain of Calais, but the Yorkists managed to hold on to the garrison.[37]

In March 1460 Warwick made a visit to York in Ireland to plan the way ahead, and afterwards returned to Calais.[38] Then, on 26 June, he landed at Sandwich with Salisbury and March, and from here the three earls rode north to London.[39] Salisbury was left in control of the Tower of London, while Warwick took March with him in pursuit of the king.[40] At Northampton, on 10 July, King Henry was taken captive, while the Duke of Buckingham and others were killed in battle.[41]

In September York arrived from Ireland, and at the parliament of October that year, the duke walked up to the throne and put his hand on it.[42] The act, signifying usurpation, left the assembly in shock.[43] It is unclear whetherWarwick had prior knowledge of York's plans, though it is assumed that this had been agreed upon between the two in Ireland the previous March.[44] It soon became clear, however, that this regime change was unacceptable to the lords in parliament, and a compromise was agreed. The Act of Accord of 31 October 1460 stated that while Henry VI was allowed to stay on the throne for the remainder of his life, his son Edward, Prince of Wales, was to be disinherited. Instead, York would succeed the king, and act as protector until that point.[45]

This solution was not ideal to either party, and further conflict was inevitable.[46] On 30 December, at the Battle of Wakefield, York and was killed, as were York's second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Warwick's younger brother Thomas.[47] Salisbury was executed a day later. Warwick marched north to confront the enemy, but was defeated and forced to flee at the Second Battle of St Albans.[48] He then joined forces with Prince Edward of York, the new Yorkist claimant to the crown, who had just won an important victory at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.[49]

While Queen Margaret was hesitating to make her next move, Warwick and Edward hastened to London.[50] The citizens of the capital were scared by the brutal conduct of the Lancastrian forces, and were sympathetic to the House of York. On 4 March the prince was proclaimed King Edward IV, by an assembly that gathered quickly.[51] The new king now headed north to consolidate his title, and met with the Lancastrian forces at Towton in Yorkshire. Warwick had suffered an injury to the leg the day before, in the Battle of Ferrybridge, and may have played only a minor part in the battle that followed.[52] The unusually bloody skirmish resulted in a complete victory for the Yorkist forces, and the death of many important men on the opposing side, such as Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Andrew Trollope.[53] Queen Margaret managed to escape to Scotland, with Henry and Prince Edward.[54] Edward IV returned to London for his coronation, while Warwick remained to pacify the north.[55]

[edit] Warwick's apex

"They have but two rulers, M de warwick and another whose name I have forgotten."

— The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[7][56]

Warwick's position after the accession of Edward IV was stronger than ever.[57] He had now succeeded to his father's possessions, and in 1462 also inherited his mother's lands and the Salisbury title.[58] Altogether he had an annual income from his lands of over £7,000, far more than any other man in the realm but the king.[59] Edward confirmed Warwick's position as Captain of Calais, and made him Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, along with several other offices.[60] His brothers also benefited: John Neville, Lord Montagu, was made Warden of the East March in 1463, and the next year created Earl of Northumberland.[61] George Neville, Bishop of Exeter, was confirmed in his post as chancellor by King Edward, and in 1465 promoted to the archbishopric of York.[62]

By late 1461, risings in the north had been put down, and in the summer of 1462, Warwick negotiated a truce with Scotland.[7] In October the same year, Margaret of Anjou invaded England with troops from France, and managed to takethe castles of Alnwick and Bamburgh.[63] Warwick had to organise the recapture of the castles, which was accomplished by January 1463. The leaders of the rebellion, including Ralph Percy, were pardoned and left in charge of the retaken castles.[64] At this point, Warwick felt secure enough to travel south; in February he buried the remains of his father and brother at Bisham Priory, and in March he attended parliament at Westminster.[65]

That same spring, however, the north rose up in rebellion once more, when Ralph Percy laid siege to Norham Castle.[66] Warwick returned to the north and rescued Norham, but the Lancastrians were left in possession of Northumberland, and the government decided on a diplomatic approach instead. Separate truces were negotiated with Scotland and France, which allowed Warwick to retake the Northumbrian castles held by the Lancastrian rebels.[67] This time no clemency was given, and around thirty of the rebel leaders were executed.[68]

[edit] Early tensions

Edward IV's secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville contributed to the growing tensions between Warwick and the king.At the negotiations with the French, Warwick had intimated that King Edward was interested in a marriage arrangement with the French crown, the intended bride being Louis XI's sister-in-law, Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy.[69] This marriage was not to be, however, because in September 1464, Edward revealed that he was already married,to Elizabeth Woodville.[70] The marriage caused great offence to Warwick: not only due to the fact that his plans had been sabotaged, but also the secrecy with which the king had acted.[71] The marriage – contracted on 1 May of the same year – was not made public before Warwick pressed Edward on the issue at a council meeting, and in the meanwhile Warwick had been unknowingly deceiving the French into believing the king was serious about the marriage proposal.[70] For Edward the marriage may very well have been a love match, but in the long run he sought to build the Woodville family into a powerhouse independent of Warwick's influence.[72]

This was not enough to cause a complete fallout between the two men, though from this point on Warwick increasingly stayed away from court.[73] The promotion of Warwick's brother George to Archbishop of York shows that the earl was still in favour with the king. In July 1465, when Henry VI was once more captured, it was Warwick who escorted the fallen king to his captivity in the Tower.[74]

Then, in the spring of 1466, Warwick was sent to the continent to carry out negotiations with the French and Burgundians. The negotiations centred around a marriage proposal involving Edward's sister Margaret.[75] Warwick increasingly came to favour French diplomatic connections.[76] Meanwhile, Edward's father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance.[77] This set up internal conflict within the English court, which was not alleviated by the fact that Edward had signed a secret treaty in October with Burgundy, while Warwick was forced to carry on sham negotiations with the French.[78] Later, George Neville was dismissed as chancellor, while Edward refused to contemplate a marriage between Warwick's oldest daughter Isabel, and Edward's brother George, Duke of Clarence.[79] It became increasingly clear that Warwick's position of dominance at court had been taken over by Rivers.[80]

In the autumn of 1467, there were rumours that Warwick was now sympathetic to the Lancastrian cause, but even though he refused to come to court to answer the charges, the king accepted his denial in writing.[81] In July the same year, it was revealed that Warwick's deputy in Calais, John, Lord Wenlock, was involved in a Lancastrian conspiracy, and early in 1469 another Lancastrian plot was uncovered, involving John de Vere, Earl of Oxford.[82] It was becoming clear that the discontent with Edward's reign was widespread, a fact that Warwick could exploit.[83]

[edit] Rebellion and death

Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a "Robin of Redesdale".[84] Part of Warwick's plan was winning over Edward's brother Clarence, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne.[85] The nineteen-year old Clarence had shown himself to share many of the abilities of his older brother, but was also jealous and overambitious.[86] In July the two sailed over to Calais where Clarence was married to Isabel.[87]From here they returned to England, where they gathered the men of Kent to join the rebellion in the north.[88] Meanwhile, the king's forces were defeated at Edgecote, where William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, was killed.[89] The other commander, Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Devon, was caught in flight and lynched by a mob.[90] Later, Earl Rivers and his son John were also apprehended and murdered.[91] With his army now defeated, the king was taken under arrest by Archbishop Neville.[92] He was imprisoned in Warwick, and in August taken north to Middleham Castle.[93] In the long run, however, it proved impossible to rule without the king, and continuing disorder forced Warwick to release Edward in September 1469.[85]

The Battle of Barnet, where Warwick was killed. Edward IV can be seen on the left, wearing a crown.A modus vivendi had been achieved between Warwick and the king for some months, but the restoration of Henry Percy to Montagu's earldom of Northumberland prevented any chance of full reconciliation.[94] A trap was set for the king when disturbances in Lincolnshire led him north, where he could be confronted by Warwick's men.[95] Edward, however, discovered the plot when Richard, Lord Welles, was routed at Losecote Field, and gave away the plan.[96]

Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[97] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry's son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick's daughter Anne.[98] The objective of the alliance was to restore Henry VI to the throne.[99] Again Warwick staged an uprising in the north, and with the king away, he and Clarence landed at Dartmouth and Plymouth on 13 September.[100] Among the many who flocked to Warwick's side was his brother Montagu, who had not taken part in the last rebellion, but was disappointedwhen his loyalty to the king had not been rewarded with the restoration of his earldom.[61] This time the trap set up for the king worked; as Edward hurried south, Montagu's forces approached from the north, and the king found himself surrounded.[101] On 2 October he fled to the Netherlands.[102] King Henry was now restored, with Warwick acting as the true ruler in his capacity as lieutenant.[103] At a parliament in November, Edward was attainted of his lands and titles, and Clarence was awarded the Duchy of York.[104]

At this point, however, international affairs intervened. Louis XI declared war on Burgundy, and Duke Charles responded by granting an expeditionary force to Edward IV, in order to reclaim his throne.[105] On 14 March Edward landed at Ravenspurn in Yorkshire, with the acquiescence of the Earl of Northumberland.[106] Warwick was still waiting for Queen Margaret and her son Edward, who were supposed to bring reinforcements from France, but were kept up on the continent by bad weather.[107] At this point Edward received the support of his brother Clarence, who realised that he had been disadvantaged by the new agreement with the Lancastrians.[108] Clarence's defection weakened Warwick, who nevertheless went in pursuit of Edward. On 14 April the two armies met at Barnet.[109] Fog and poor visibility on the field led to confusion, and the Lancastrian army ended up attacking its own men.[110] In the face of defeat Warwick attempted to escape the field, but was struck off his horse and killed.[111]

[edit] Aftermath

Warwick's body – along with that of his brother Montagu, who had also fallen at Barnet – was displayed in London's St Paul's Cathedral to quell any rumours of their survival.[111] Then they were handed over to Archbishop Neville, to be buried in the family vault at Bisham.[110] On 4 May of the same year, Edward IV defeated the remaining Lancastrian forces of Queen Margaret and Prince Edward at the Battle of Tewkesbury, where the prince was killed.[112] Soon afterwards, it was reported that King Henry VI had also died in the Tower.[113] With the direct Lancastrian line exterminated, Edward could reign safely until his death in 1483.[105]

Warwick's offices were divided between King Edward's brothers Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III. Clarence received the chamberlainship of England and the lieutenancy of Ireland, while Gloucester wasmade Admiral of England and Warden of the West March.[114] Clarence also received the earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury.[115] The earl's land had been forfeited and taken into the king's custody. When Gloucester married Warwick'syounger daughter Anne in 1472, who had been recently widowed by the death of Prince Edward, a dispute broke out between the two princes over the Beauchamp and Despenser inheritances.[116] A compromise was eventually reached, whereby the land was divided, but Clarence was not pacified. In 1477 he once again plotted against his brother. This time the king could no longer act with lenience, and the next year the Duke of Clarence was executed.[117]

Of Clarence's two surviving children, his son Edward was executed in 1499, accused of treason. In 1541, his daughter, Margaret, met with the same fate. Meanwhile, Montagu's son, George, who was the male heir of the Neville family,was disinherited and died in 1483. As most of the Neville inheritance reverted to the crown under Richard, who was now king, the Neville line came to an end.[118]

[edit] Historical assessment

"thou setter-up and plucker-down of kings"

— William Shakespeare; Henry VI

Early sources on Richard Neville fall into two categories. The first are the sympathetic chronicles of the early Yorkist years, or works based on these, such as the Mirror for Magistrates (1559). The other category originates withchronicles commissioned by Edward IV after Warwick's fall, such as the Historie of the arrivall of Edward IV, and take a more negative view of the earl.[119] The Mirror portrayed Warwick as a great man: beloved by the people, andbetrayed by the man he helped raise to the throne.[120] The other perspective can be found in Shakespeare's Henry VI trilogy: a man driven by pride and egotism, who created and deposed kings at will.[121]

In time, however, it is the latter view that dominated. The Enlightenment, or Whig historians of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, decried anyone who impeded the development towards a centralised, constitutional monarchy, the way Warwick did in his struggles with Edward.[122] David Hume called Warwick "the greatest, as well as the last, of those mighty barons who formerly overawed the crown, and rendered the people incapable of any regular system ofcivil government."[123] Later writers were split between admiration for some of Warwick's character traits, and condemnation of his political actions. The romantic novelist Lord Lytton picked up on Hume's theme in his The Last ofthe Barons.[124] Though Lytton portrayed Warwick as a tragic hero who embodied the ideals of chivalry, he was nevertheless one whose time was past.[122] The late-nineteenth century military historian Charles Oman acknowledged theearl's ability to appeal to popular sentiments, yet pointed out his deficiencies as a military commander.[125] Oman found Warwick a traditional strategist, "not attaining the heights of military genius displayed by his pupil Edward."[126] Paul Murray Kendall's popular biography from 1957 took a sympathetic view of Warwick, but concluded that he had ultimately fallen victim to his own overreaching ambition.[127]

Warwick's coat of armsMore recent historians, such as Michael Hicks and A. J. Pollard, have tried to see Warwick in light of the standards of his own age, rather than holding him up to contemporary constitutional ideals. The insults Warwick suffered at the hands of King Edward – including Edward's secret marriage, and the refusal of the French diplomatic channel – were significant.[128] His claim to prominence in national affairs was not a product of illusions of grandeur; it was confirmed by the high standing he enjoyed among the princes on the continent.[129] Furthermore, Warwick's cause was not considered unjust by his contemporaries, which can be seen by the earl's popularity exceeding that of the king at the time of his first rebellion in 1469.[130] On the other hand, while Warwick could not easily suffer his treatment by the king, it was equally impossible for Edward to accept the earl's presence on the political scene. As long as Warwick remained as powerful and influential as he was, Edward could not fully assert his royal authority, and eventual confrontation became inevitable.[131]

[edit] Neville family tree

The chart below shows, in abbreviated form, the family background of Richard Neville and his family connections with the houses of York and Lancaster. Dashed lines denotes marriage and solid lines children. Anne Neville is shown with her two husbands, in order from right to left.

Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick

(1382–1439) Isabel Despenser

(1400–1439) Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

(1400–1460) Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury (c. 1406–1462)

Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick

(1426–1492) Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick

(1428–1471) John Neville, Lord Montagu

(c. 1431–1471) George Neville

(1432–1476)

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

(1411–1460) Cecily Neville

(1415–1495) Isabel Neville

(1451–1476) Anne Neville

(1456–1485) Henry VI

(1421–1471) Margaret of Anjou

(1430–1482)

Edward IV

(1442–1483) Edmund, Earl of Rutland

(1443–1460) George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

(1449–1478) (2.) Richard III

(1452–1485) (1.) Edward, Prince of Wales

(1453–1471)

[show]v • d • eAncestors of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

16. Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby

8. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby

17. Alice de Audley

4. Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland

18. Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy

9. Maud Percy

19. Idoine de Clifford

2. Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

20. Edward III of England

10. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster

21. Philippa of Hainault

5. Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland

22. Payne de Roet

11. Katherine Swynford

1. Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

24. John Montacute

12. John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury

25. Margaret de Monthermer

6. Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury

26. Adam Francis

13. Maud Francis

3. Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury

28. Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent

14. Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent

29. Joan of Kent

7. Eleanor Holland

30. Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel

15. Alice FitzAlan

31. Eleanor of Lancaster

[edit] See also

Percy-Neville feud

Kingmaker board game

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Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), known as "Warwick the Kingmaker", was a leading figure in the Wars of the Roses, during which he helped depose the Lancastrian King Henry VI in favour of the Yorkist King Edward IV. This earned him his nickname of "the Kingmaker", but he later fell out with Edward and restored Henry VI to the throne. During this period Warwick was the richest man in the country outside of the Royal Family, and was considered the real ruler of England.

Early life

Said to have been born in Bisham, Berkshire, he was the eldest son of the 5th Countess of Salisbury and the jure uxoris 5th Earl of Salisbury. His younger brother was the 1st Marquess of Montagu, who had briefly been Earl of Northumberland and his sister was Katherine Neville who married William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings.

He married Lady Anne de Beauchamp, the sister of the 1st Duke of Warwick, in 1434. When the Duke died in 1446, his Earldom was inherited by his infant daughter, another Lady Anne de Beauchamp, who became 15th Countess of Warwick. Lady Warwick died in 1449 at the age of five, and Neville inherited the Earldom through his wife, the late Countess's aunt.

As the nephew by marriage of the Duke of York, Warwick was a leading figure in the Wars of the Roses. He used his influence and popularity to help York gain a more influential role under Henry VI, although he stopped short of supporting York when the latter claimed the throne in 1460. When his father was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, Warwick became the largest and most influential landowner in England, after which his military support was instrumental in putting Edward IV on the throne. The two were very close during the early years of Edward's reign, when Warwick put down Lancastrian rebellions in the northern counties of England. Warwick inherited the Earldom of Salisbury on his mother's death in 1462, and thus controlled two great Earldoms, with estates throughout the Midlands and the Welsh Marches.

[edit]Break with Edward IV

By the late 1460s Warwick had quarrelled with the King. The breakdown in their relationship stemmed from Edward's secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. Edward later announced his marriage to the considerable embarrassment of Warwick, who had been negotiating a match between Edward and a French bride to establish an alliance with France. This embarrassment turned to bitterness when the Woodvilles came to be favoured over the Nevilles at court. Other factors compounded Warwick’s disillusionment: Edward's preference for an alliance with Burgundy rather than France, and his reluctance to allow his brothers the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Gloucester to marry Warwick's daughters Isabel and Anne.

By 1469, Warwick had formed an alliance with Edward's jealous brother Clarence, to whom he married his elder daughter Isabel. They defeated Edward's forces at the Battle of Edgecote, capturing the King and ruling in his name for afew months (At this point, Warwick briefly had two Kings of England in his custody).

Warwick's forces also captured the King's father-in-law, the Earl Rivers, and his second son, Sir John Woodville, at Chepstow after the battle. They were beheaded at Kenilworth on August 12, 1469 on trumped-up charges.

Crucially, however, Warwick's brother Montagu remained loyal to Edward. Warwick found that he could not rule effectively with the King imprisoned, and following his release the King gradually reasserted political control.

[edit]Warwick changes sides

Following another rebellion blamed on Warwick and Clarence in 1470, Warwick was attainted as a traitor and fled to France. There he came to form an alliance with his old enemy Margaret of Anjou, exiled Queen of King Henry VI. As aresult, he married his younger daughter, Anne, to Margaret's son, Edward, Prince of Wales.

Margaret remained suspicious of Warwick, and insisted that he cement their alliance by returning to England with an army. This time, Warwick's brother Montagu supported him with an army from the north, and Edward was forced into exile while Warwick restored Henry VI to the throne on October 30.

Warwick now planned to consolidate his alliance with King Louis XI by helping France to invade Burgundy, for which King Louis promised him the reward of the Burgundian territories of Zeeland and Holland. News of this drove Charlesthe Bold, Duke of Burgundy, to assist Edward with funds and an army to invade England in the spring of 1471. By the time Margaret and her supporters were ready to join Warwick from France, Warwick (along with his brother and chief supporter Montagu) had been defeated and killed by the returning Edward IV at the Battle of Barnet.

His daughter, Isabel remained married to Clarence until her death in 1476; but Anne Neville, whose husband the Prince of Wales was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury shortly after Warwick's death, later married Gloucester, who became King as Richard III.

Marriage and children

With Lady Anne de Beauchamp he had the following children:

Lady Isabel Neville (5 Sep 1451-22 Dec 1476) married George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

Lady Anne Beauchamp Neville (11 Jun 1456-16 Mar 1485) married Richard III of England

Illegitimate Children

Margaret Neville born circa 1445, died. circa 1499 married Sir Richard Huddlestone and had issue

References

Oman, Charles (1891). Warwick, the Kingmaker. London; New York: Macmillan.

Kendall, Paul Murray (1957).Warwick the Kingmaker. London. ISBN 0-351-17096-0

Hicks, Michael (1998). Warwick the Kingmaker. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16259-3

--------------------

Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury[3] (22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander. The son ofRichard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Warwick was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the main protagonists in the Wars of the Roses, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, a fact which later earned him his epithet of "Kingmaker".

Through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics. Originally a supporter of King Henry VI, a territorial dispute with the Duke of Somerset led him to collaborate with Richard, Duke of York, opposing the king. From this conflict he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position that benefited him greatly in the years to come. The political conflict later turned into full-scale rebellion, and both York and Warwick's father, Salisbury, fell in battle. York's son, however, later triumphed with Warwick's assistance, and was crowned King Edward IV. Edward initially ruled with Warwick's support, but the two later fell out over foreign policy and the king's choice of partner in marriage. After a failed plot to crown Edward's brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne. The triumph was short-lived however: on 14 April 1471 Warwick was defeated by Edward at the Battle of Barnet, and killed.

Richard Neville had no sons. The eldest of his two daughters, Isabel, married George, Duke of Clarence. His youngest daughter Anne – after a short-lived marriage to King Henry's son Edward – married King Edward's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who later became King Richard III.

Warwick's historical legacy has been a matter of much dispute. Historical opinion has alternated between seeing him as self-centred and rash, and regarding him as a victim of the whims of an ungrateful king. It is generally agreed, however, that in his own time he enjoyed great popularity in all layers of society, and that he was skilled at appealing to popular sentiments for political support.

--------------------

Richard Neville, from the Rous Roll.

Born 22 November 1428(1428-11-22)

Died 14 April 1471 (aged 42)

Barnet, Hertfordshire

Cause of death Killed in battle

Resting place Bisham, Berkshire

Title 6th Earl of Salisbury

Tenure 1449–1471

Other names Warwick the Kingmaker

Known for Party to the Wars of the Roses

Years active c. 1449–1471

Nationality English

Residence Middleham Castle, et al.

Locality Warwickshire, Yorkshire

Net worth c. £7000 at death

Wars and battles Wars of the Roses

• Battle of Towton

• Battle of Barnet

Offices Captain of Calais

Admiral of England

Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster

Predecessor Anne de Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick

Successor Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick

Spouse(s) Lady Anne de Beauchamp

Issue Isabella, Duchess of Clarence

Anne, Queen Consort of England

Parents Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

Alice Montagu, 5th Countess of Salisbury

Signature

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The Kingmaker. War of the Roses
He was also earl of Warwick.
EARL OF SALISBURY & WARWICK; KG; BEARER OF THE SWAN BADGE; KNOWN AS "THE STOUT"
AND "THE KING-MAKER"; KILLED IN BATTLE
NOTE: Sir
16th Earl of Warwick
The King Maker
Source
www.thepeerage.com
NOTE:
From Ancestral File (TM), data as of 5 JAN 1998.
NOTE: Earl of Warwick, called "The Kingmaker." Through his grandfather Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, he had connections with the house of Lancaster; he was also the nephew of Cecily Neville, wife of Richard, Duke of York. Through his wife, Anne de Beauchamp, he inherited the earldom of Warwick and the huge Beauchamp estates in Warwickshire. Thus by virtue of his family and lands he was the most powerful noble in England and the principal baronial figure in the Wars of the Roses. With his father, the Earl of Salisbury, Warwick supported Richard of York in his bid for the protectorship of Henry VI (1454) and took up arms when York lost his office. He was largely responsible for the Yorkist victory at the first battle of St. Albans (1455) and was appointed to the strategic post of governor of Calais. In 1459 when fighting broke out anew, York, Salisbury and Warwick were forced to flee the country, but in 1460 they returned and captured the king at the battle of Northampton. The queen, Margaret of Anjou, raised an army in the north, defeated and killed York and Salisbury at Wakefield (1460), and defeated Warwick and recaptured Henryat the second battle of St. Alban's (1461). But York's son, Edward, won the battle of Mortimer's Cross (1461), entered London, and was proclaimed king as Edward IV. Henry and Margaret were decisively defeated at Towton (1461) andEdward was crowned. Warwick was now the principal man in England and the Nevilles received royal favors, but Edward resented the Earl's domination. In the midst of negotiations by Warwick to marry Edward to Bona of Savoy, the sister-in-law of Louis XI of France, the king announced that he had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville (1464). Edward now favored a Burgundian alliance against France, the Woodvilles received royal favor, and Warwick was gradually pushed into the background. He formed an alliance with the king's brother, George, Duke of Clarence, to whom he married his daughter against Edward's orders. After several minor insurrections Warwick and Clarence defeated Edward'sforces (1469) and returned to power, but in 1470 Edward regained his independence and forced them to flee to France. Louis XI now persuaded Warwick and Queen Margaret to compose their differences , and Warwick invaded England as a Lancastrian, defeated Edward, and restored Henry VI. Within six months Edward secured Burgundian aid, landed in England, and was joined by Clarence. The king and Warwick met in battle at Barnet (1471), and Warwick was defeated in killed.
Although an able diplomat and a man of great energy, Warwick owed much of his greatness to his birth and marriage. By the marriage of his daughter to Clarence, and the marriage after his death of his second daughter to Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later king Richard III), all of Warwick's estates and property passed to the royal house.
NOTE: Richard Neville the "Kingmaker" Earl of Warwick; born 22 Nov 1428[N]; married Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Sir Richard de Beauchamp of Warwick Earl of Warwick and Isabel Despenser Baroness Burgersh, 1434; died 14 Apr 1471 Battle ofBarnet, England, at age 42[N].
NOTE: Nobleman generally known as "the kingmaker" in Shakespeare's HenryVI, Part 2 and Henry VI, Part 3. A man of great ambition and fewscruples, Warwick swears to make Richard Plantagenet, duke of York(and then his son Edward), king in exchange for a share of power. Heabandons the Yorkist cause in a fit of pique when Edward ignores theFrench marriage negotiated by Warwick and weds Elizabeth, Lady Grey.His perfidy is but one example of the general dissolution of thekingdom.
Source: www.eb.com
----------
Byname THE KINGMAKER, English nobleman called, since the 16th century,"the Kingmaker," in reference to his role as arbiter of royal powerduring the first half of the Wars of the Roses (1455-85) between thehouses of Lancaster and York. He obtained the crown for the Yorkistking Edward IV in 1461 and later restored to power (1470-71) thedeposed Lancastrian monarch Henry VI.

The son of Richard Neville, 1st (or 5th) Earl of Salisbury (d. 1460),he became, through marriage, Earl of Warwick in 1449 and therebyacquired vast estates throughout England. In 1453 Warwick and hisfather allied with Richard, Dukeof York, who was struggling to wrestpower from the Lancastrian Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, chiefminister to the ineffectual king Henry VI. The two sides eventuallytook up arms, and, at the Battle of St. Albans, Hertfordshire, in May1455, Warwick's flank attack won a swift victory for the Yorkists. Ashis reward Warwick was appointed captain of Calais, an Englishpossession on the coast of France. From Calais he crossed to Englandin 1460 and defeated and captured Henry VI at Northampton (July 10).York and Parliament agreed to let Henry keep his crown, probablybecause of the influence of Warwick, who preferred to have a weakking. (See Saint Albans, battles of.)
Source: www.eb.com
NOTE: Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was a leading figure in the Wars of the Roses, during which he helped deposethe Lancastrian King Henry VI in favour of the Yorkist King Edward IV. This earned him his nickname of "the Kingmaker", but he later fell out with Edward and restored Henry VI to the throne. During this period Warwick was the richest man in the country outside of the Royal Family, and was considered the real ruler of England.[1] Warwick was killed at the Battle of Barnet, as Edward was restored to power.
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